Collapse of the Soviet Union and the Rise of Modern Day Russia

Boris Yeltsin on a tank in front of the Russian White House, 1991, Author unknown.
Flea market in Rostov-on-Don, 1992, Brian Kelley.
Russians protest the economic depression caused by the reforms with the banner saying: "Jail the redhead!", 9 April 1998, Yu.N. Chastov (Ю. Н. Частов).
Vladimir Putin taking the Presidential Oath at the St Andrew Hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace, 7 May 2000, Presidential Press and Information Office.

Russian Tactics

The Wagner Group:

Two Russian mercenaries from the Wagner Group provide security for President Faustin-Archange Touadéra during a ceremony, 1 December 2019,Clément Di Roma / FRANCE 24.
The Hooded Man, Detainee with bag over head, standing on box with wires attached at Abu Ghraib, 4 November 2003, Staff Sgt. Ivan Frederick / The New Yorker.
A Russian armored personnel carrier drives in the street during the delivery of armored vehicles to the Central African Republic army in Bangui, 15 October 2020. Camille Laffont / AFP.
A monument to the FACA forces and Russian instructors in Bangui, 28 November 2021, Vorposte / Telegram.


A man from Mali holds a poster reading 'Death to France and allies' as Malians protest against France's military presence in Mali on the 60th anniversary of Mali's independence in Bamako, Mali, 22 September 2020, H. Diakte / EFE

Trailer of Турист (2021)

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Disinformation campaigns that have been detected and publicly documented, 26 April 2022, Africa Center for Strategic Studies / U.S. Department of Defense. 

Additional Resources

Adochoo Mensah, Anna Naa, and Kwesi Aning. ‘Russia Resurgent? Untangling the Role and Meaning of Moscow’s Proxies in West Africa and the Sahel.’ Strategic Review for Southern Africa 44, no. 1 (2022).
Besenyő, János. ‘The Africa Policy of Russia’. Terrorism and Political Violence 31, no. 1 (2019): 132–53.
Matusevich, Maxim. ‘Russia in Africa’. Insight Turkey 21, no. 1 (2019): 25–40.
Burkina Faso not ruling out reviewing its relations with Russia, 31 October 2022, Rédaction Africanews with AFP. (This is article was published by Africanews, which is French owned and was co-written with AFP.)
Russia (just like the West) is no true friend to Africa, 30 Juli 2022, Tafi Mhaka.
Russia, West vie for influence amid Africa caution on Ukraine war, 19 August 2022, Chris Muronzi.
Analysis: The curious case of Russia in Central African Republic, 20 May 2020, Bram Posthumus.
Lavrov denigrates West’s stance towards Africa on Ethiopia visit, 27 July 2022.
Russia has joined the ‘scramble’ for Africa, 10 November 2019, Patrick Gathara.

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Negotiating power (2022/23)

Russia and the Soviet Union in Africa: Reflections

Negotiating Power The first plenary session as part of the 2019 Russia-Africa Summit at the Sirius Park of Science and Art in Sochi, Russia, 24 October 2019, Gavriil Grigorov/TASS Host ...