Digital Sources

Bok, Marrigje de. “Congo in Cartoons in the Tropenmuseum.” The Power of Culture, June 2004. 

“Cheri Samba.” African Contemporary. 

“Die Freiheit und der Kongo.” Horvath Collection. 

Horvath, Patrick. “Die “Sammlung Horvath” Für Politische Kunst.” Wien, 2018.  

Kuitenbrouwer, Joost B. “Une initiative de l’O.N.U. Le camp des Baluba. Rapport secret.” Bruxelles: Charles Dessart (1963): 90-98. 

Lammers, Thijs. “Painting Congolese History: Tshibumba Kanda Matulu.” Cafébabel, July 31, 2006. 

“Mobutu Speech At The UN 1973.” Vimeo. 



“Pierre Bodo.” Angalia Arts. 

“Republic of the Congo – ONUC Background.” United Nations Peacekeeping. 

“Resolutions adopted by the Security Council in 1960.” United Nations Security Council. 

“Sapin Makengele.” African Studies Centre Leiden. 

Scott Smith, Giles. “Review: Pieper-Mooney, J. and Lanza, F. (Eds.) (2013). De-Centering Cold War History: Local and Global Change.”Diplomacy & Statecraft 24, no. 3 (2013): 528-530.

The Hammarskjöld Commission.

“The History of Zaire as Told and Painted by Tshibumba Kanda Matulu in Conversation with Johannes Fabian.” Archives of Popular Swahili 4.2 (1999). 

Tropenmuseum Online Collections.  


Secondary Works 

Blommaert, Jan. “Grassroots Historiography and the Problem of Voice: Tshibumba’s Histoire du Zaire.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14, no. 1 (2004): 6-23. 

Ceuppens, Bambi, and Sammy Baloji. Congo Art Works: Peinture Populaire. Bruxelles: Racine, 2016. 

Collins, Carole. “The Cold War Comes to Africa: Cordier and the 1960 Congo Crisis.” Journal of International Affairs 47, no. 1 (1993): 243-269. 

Connelly, Matthew. “Taking off the Cold War Lens: Visions of North-South Conflict during the Algerian War of Independence.” American Historical Review 105, no. 3 (2000): 739-769.

Dunn, Kevin. Imagining the Congo: The International Relations of Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Fabian, Johannes. Remembering the Present: Painting and Popular History in Zaire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Faber, Paul, and Johannes Fabian. The Dramatic History of the Congo as Painted by Tshibumba Kanda Matulu. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2005. 

Geerts, Wolter. Binza 10: De Eerste tien Onafhangelijkheidsjaren van de Democratische Republiek Kongo. Ghent: E-Story-Scientia, 1970.

Gibbs, David N. “The United Nations, International Peacekeeping and the Question of ‘Impartiality’: Revisiting the Congo Operation of 1960.” Journal of Modern African Studies 38, no. 3 (2000): 359-382. 

Gondola, Ch. Didier. The History of Congo. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002. 

Ikambana, Peta. Mobutu’s Totalitarian Political System: An Afrocentric Analysis. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Jewsiecki, Bogumil. Mami Wata: La Peinture Urbaine au Congo. Paris: Gallimard, 2003. 

Kalb, Madeleine. Congo Cables: The Cold War in Africa – From Eisenhower to Kennedy. New York: Macmillan Press, 1982.

Kent, John. “The Neo-colonialism of Decolonisation: Katangan Secession and the Bringing of the Cold War to the Congo.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 45, no. 1 (2017): 93-130. 

Künzler, Daniel and Uta Reuster-Jahn. ““Mr President”: Musical Open Letters as Political Commentary in Africa.” Africa Today 59, no. 1 (2012): 89-113.

Kutalek, Ruth. “Congolese Paintings on Suffering, Violence and Trauma.” In Theory and Action: Essays for an Anthropologist, edited by Sjaak van der Gest and Marian Tinkin, Amsterdam: AMB, 2009. 

Mbembe, Achille. “Decolonizing the University: New directions.” Arts & Humanities in Higher Education 15, no. 1 (2016): 29-45. 

Namikas, Lise A. “Battleground Africa: The Cold War and the Congo Crisis, 1960-1965.” MA diss., University of Southern California, 2002.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. The Congo from Leopold to Kabila : A People’s History. London: Zed Books, 2002.

O’Brien, Conor Cruise. To Katanga and Back: A U.N. Case History. London: Hutchinson, 1962.

O’Malley, Alanna. “‘What an Awful Body the UN Have Become!!’ † Anglo-American–UN Relations during the Congo Crisis, February–December 1961.” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 14, no. 1 (2016): 26-46.

Thiong’o, Ngũgĩ wa. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: Currey, 1986.

Turine, Roger Pierre. Les Arts du Congo: D’hier à Nos Jours. Bruxelles: Renaissance du Livre, 2007.

Weissman, Stephen. American Foreign Policy in the Congo, 1960-64. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974. 

White, Luise. Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Williams, Susan. Who Killed Hammarskjöld?: The UN, the Cold War, and White Supremacy in Africa. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.