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Looking at an image you can focus on the representation of this image and what the maker wants to tell you (image language) or you can consider the techniques used to make it a strong image (image style).

Image language

Images are meant to convey a message. The old philosophers already described this art: semiotics, rhetoric and kairos. For a brief introduction to semiotics and rhetoric, two nice internet animations are selected. Much more can be found online.
Photo voice is a well-known way of looking at the stories and messages behind images. For the Voice, parts of manuals are linked below.

What is semiotics?
How to use rhetoric to get what you want
An Introduction to Kairos: Persuasion beyond ethos, logos and pathos

Image style

There are many ways to place your objects in the frame of the picture to tell your story. You have all the freedom, still there is a set of rules that can be applied to draw the attention of the viewer. The videos below illustrate some of these rules.

Rules of framing and composition