Note that websites with recordings or lyrics are directly linked to in the footnotes.


De Witte, Ludo, The Assassination of Lumumba. London: Verso, 2001.

Howe, Marvine, “Mobutu is Building an ‘Authentic’ Zaire.” New York Times, 23 June 1972.

Levi, Ron, “The Musical Diplomacy of a Landless Ambassador: Hugh Masekela between Monterey ’67 and Zaire ’74.” Interventions20.7 (2018), 987-1002.

Levi Ron, “Zaire ’74: Politicising the Sound Event.” Social Dynamics 43.2 (2017), 184-198.

Mukuna, Kazadi Wa, “A Brief History of Popular Music in DRC.” (15 January 2015, accessed 1 February 2019).

Stewart, Gary, Rumba on the River: A History of the Popular Music of the Two Congos. London: Verso, 2000.

White Bob W., Rumba Rules: The Politics of Dance Music in Mobutu’s Zaire. Durham, Nc: Duke University Press, 2008.